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擊劍常用術語中英對照表

已更新:2021年10月26日

像所有運動一樣,劍擊都有一套它們的術語,以下是一些常用的術語:

圖片來源: (網上圖片)

1.通用術語
劍擊運動:fencing 花劍:foil 重劍:epee 佩劍:saber 劍道:Fencing piste 擊劍運動員:fencer; swordsman 花劍運動員:foil fencer; foilsman; fleurette(女) 重劍運動員:epee fencer; epeeist; duelist 佩劍運動員:saber fencer; sabreur 裁判員:judge 主裁判:president; director 檢察員:controller


圖片來源: (Academy of Fencing Masters)

2.規則
雙方就位:on trip 舉劍致敬:salute 敬禮:grand salute(比賽開始時);courbette(比賽結束時) 優先裁判權(進攻權):right of away 劍尖威脅(擊劍線):point in line 擊劍時間:fencing time; tempsd’escrime 有效距離:reach 有效部位:target area [field]; (valid) target 接近有效部位:deep 有效面積:valid surface 無效面積:invalid surface 擊[刺/劈]中:hit;touch 沒擊中:hit off the target 互中:mutual [double;simultaneous]touch; coup double 判擊中無效:annul 擊中得分:hit received [scored; on the target] 擊中無效:hit not valid; invalid touch 同時進攻:simultaneous action 可疑劍:doubtful hit 身體接觸:corps-?-corps; clinch 平分:match null 棄權:abandon; no opinion 退出比賽:abandon 故意衝撞:closing in 非故意犯規:unintentional foul 粗野動作:rough play 有意做粗野動作:willful brutality 危險動作:dangerous play 警告信號:warming signal 判罰一分:penalize one touch 罰分:penalty point 黃牌(警告僅對本場有效):yellow card 紅牌(判罰一劍):red card 黑牌(開除出比賽):black card 循環賽小組:pool 復賽:fence-off; barrage 決勝賽:additional match 決勝加時賽:prolongation 調換位置:reverse position 交換場地:change of place 檢查器械:control of weapons 預備!:On guard!; En garde! 準備好沒有?:Ready? Pret ? 開始!:Fence!; Fight; Go!; Play! Allez! 有!(指刺中、劈中):Hit!; Touch!; Yes! 沒有!:No touch! 無效部位!:Yes but not valid! 擊中部位過低!:Hit too low! 地上!(指劍刺地上):Ground!; Planche! 暫停!:Halt! 罰退一米:One meter! 罰退兩米:Two meters! 我棄權:I abstain!



圖片來源: (網上圖片)

3.劍術
擊劍:fence 劍術:fencing; swordplay; swords manship 花劍劍術:foil fencing 重劍劍術:epee fencing 佩劍劍術:saber fencing 持劍手:sword hand 非持劍手:unarmed hand 非持劍手臂:back arm 握劍方法:grip 手心向上的握劍法:supination 手心向下的握劍法:pronation 手法:hand technique 手腕操縱:manipulation with the wrist 手指技術:finger play 手的位置:hand position 手指控制劍身:fingering; doigte 動作方式:manner of execution 觸劍動作:action on the blade 實戰接觸:on guard 劍身交叉[接觸]:contact of blades 交鋒:engagement 對抗:opposition 對抗劍[劈]:opposition [time] hit 纏繞劍:prise de fer; takings of the blade 變動[換]:transitions 連續交鋒過程:phrase(d’armes); sequence of play 時機感:sense of timing 擊劍距離:fencing distance 劍身位置:blade position 在距離之內:within distance 拉開距離:open the distance 擊打:beat; tap 直接擊打:direct beat 劍背擊打:back-edge beat 劃半圓擊打:half counterbeat 假擊打:false beat 交換交叉擊打;挂劍交叉:change beat 兩次交換交叉:double change 壓劍:press the sword 壓[掏]刺:bind (thrust); liement 壓滑劍:pressure glide 劃圓壓劍:double bind 擊劍線:line 開放的擊劍線:open line 關閉擊劍線:close the line 交叉線:line of engagement 破壞擊劍線:cut the line 引誘;挑引:invitation; invito; tempt; catch; challenge 假動作:feint; deceptive movement; deception 兩個假動作:double feints 複雜假動作:compound feint 反欺騙:counter-deception


4.進攻
進攻:offense ; attack 進攻者:attacker; assailant 進攻行動:offensive action 準備進攻行動:preparation 進攻路線:line of attack 第一意圖:first intention 第二意圖:second intention 延續進攻:remise; renewed attack 連續進攻:redoublement; renewed attack 持續進逼:march 近戰:close combat; infighting; fight at close quarters 曲臂進攻:bent arm attack 及時進攻:attack into tempo 不及時的進攻:delayed attack 直接進攻:direct attack 間接進攻:indirect attack 簡單進攻:simple attack 複雜進攻:compound [composite; composed] attack 重新進攻:reprise; renewed attack 超過還擊的重要進攻:appuntata 滑劍[轉移]進攻:glide; coule; filo 兩個節奏[速度]進攻:two-time attack 下蹲弓步搶攻:passato sotto 擊打進攻:attack with beat 決定性的一擊:coup de grace 假進攻:false attack; attack on second intent; countertime; second-intention attack 快步佯攻:appel 一個假動作的進攻:attack preceded by a feints 兩個假動作的進攻:attack preceded by two feints 上下轉移:disengagement; degagement; high-low 半圓轉移:half degagement 劃圓;重復轉移:double degagement; dedouble 劃圓[加倍]轉移:double; doubler-dedoubler 交換交叉:change; transport of blade; coupe; cutover 交叉轉移:cutover disengage 兩次轉移:one-two 三次轉移:one-two-three 重復轉移刺:counter-disengagement 刺:thrust 一般反攻刺:stop thrust 假直刺:feint direct [straight] thrust 平刺:plaque 滑劍還擊刺腰側:flanconnade; croise to flank 滑[戳]刺:glide thrust; pass; passe 直[沖]刺:running attack; waist thrust; fleche; balestra; flash 甩劍刺:thrown hit [thrust] 叉刺:forking thrust 及時刺:time thrust 格檔:parry; deflect; divert 格檔防守:blocking parry; parry of detachment 輕擦格檔:graze; froissement; glance off; glisser 角度刺:angled [angular] thrust 點刺前臂:dig 弓箭步刺:lunge 半弓箭步刺:half distance 原地弓步刺:rear lunge 向前移步刺:advance lunge; march attack 劈:cut 及時劈:time cut 直接劈:direct cut 一般反攻劈:stop cut 複雜還擊劈:compound riposte with cut 平劈:flat cut; plaque 劃圓劈:circular cut; (cut) moulinet 劈頭:head cut 由外側劈頭:outside cut at the head 劈手臂:arm cut 劈腰:flank cut 劍刃劈:edge cut 劍背劈:back-edge cut


5.防守
防守動作:defensive action 直接防守:direct parry 簡單防守:simple parry 複雜防守:compound parry 反防守:counter-parry; parry of detachment 向前防守:guard forward 後退防守:guard backward 後退拉開距離的防守:ceding parry 擊打防守:beat [slinging; tap〕parry 假防守:feint parry 劃圓〔圓周〕防守:circular [counter] parry; counter 劃半圓防守:semi-circular parry; half counter-parry 劃圓纏繞〔阻撓〕:envelopment 對角線半圓防守:half-circle 同側的半圓防守:half-counter 假進攻接防守:contretemps 變換防守:change parry 對抗防守:opposing [contraction; holding] parry 不充分的防守:insufficient parry 撥開劍身:deviamento 閃躲:dodge; avoid; evade; displace 轉身閃躲:volt(e) 向旁閃躲:sidestep 向後弓步閃躲:echappement


6.姿勢與部位
防守〔預備;實戰〕姿勢:on-guard [parry] position; en garde 回到預備姿勢:recovery 攻擊姿勢:attack position 低姿勢:low guard 高姿勢:high guard 高手姿勢:classic position 開始姿勢:central [starting;initial] position 第一姿勢:first; prime 第一姿勢防守:first parry 第二姿勢:second; seconde 第二姿勢防守:second parry 第三姿勢:third; tierce 第三姿勢防守:third parry 第四姿勢:fourth; quarte 第四姿勢防守:fourth parry 第五姿勢:fifth; quinte 第五姿勢防守:fifth parry 第六姿勢:sixth; sixte 第六姿勢防守:sixth parry 第七姿勢;半圓:seventh; septime; semi-circle; mezzocerchio 第七姿勢防守:seventh parry 第八姿勢:eighth; octave 第八姿勢防守:eighth parry 上線(部位):high lines 下線(部位):low lines 外側部位:outside lines 外上部位:high-outside 外下部位:low-outside 內側部位:inside lines 內上部位:high-inside 內下部位:low-inside


7.還擊
反攻:counter-attack 一般反攻:stop hit 側身反攻:inquartata 變換交叉反攻:change stop hit 還擊:riposte;return 反還擊:counter-riposte[-return];counter tempo 直接還擊:direct riposte 間接還擊:indirect riposte 簡單還擊:simple riposte 複雜還擊:compound riposte 簡單直接還擊:simple direct riposte 簡單間接還擊:simple indirect riposte 交叉還擊:riposte with a coupe 防守後變換交叉還擊:flying parry 及時還擊:immediate riposte 迅速還擊:flying riposte 轉移還擊:croise 劃圓轉移還擊:riposte with a double 上下線轉移還擊:riposte by disengagement 兩次變線轉移還擊:riposte with a one-two


8.步法
步法:footwork; step 向前一步:step forward 向後一步:step backward 向前躍步:jump forward 向後躍步:jump backward 交叉步:cross feet 向前交叉步:passado 跨步:stride 滑步:sliding 側[橫]步: sidestep 弓步:plunge; gain 後撤弓步:backward lunge 弓步還原:recover 兩腳間的距離:foot spacing [spread] 跟上〔進〕:catch up 後退:draw back; retreat; retire; give ground


9.劍
劍:sword 鈍(花)劍:foil 銳(重)劍:epee 軍刀(佩劍):saber 器械;武器(三種劍的統稱):weapon 劍身:blade 易彎的;富有彈性的:whippy 劍身強部:forte 劍身弱部:foible 劍身中部:middle 劍身末端:tang 劍刃:edge of the blade 劍尖:point; tip 劍背:back edge; flat of the blade 劍槽:groove 劍頭:button; pointe d’arret 電動劍頭:electric pointe d’arret 劍柄:handle; hilt; grip 鬆緊帶(將意式劍柄固定在手上的帶子):strap; martingale 護手盤:hand [bell] guard;coquille 劍鞘:scabbard; sheath


10.場地
擊劍館:fencing hall 比賽場地:field of play 擊劍場:piste; fencing strip [terrain]; planche; board 金屬場地:metallic piste 邊線:boundary 端線:end line; rear limit 延伸部分:extension;runback 警告區:warning area 開始線:guard line 中線:middle line 紅燈:red lamp 綠燈:green lamp 白燈:white lamp 重復信號燈:repeater lights 裁判器:judging apparatus 電動裁判器:electric judging apparatus 導線:cable;cord;wire 拖線盤:spool;drum 擊劍靶;人形靶:dummy


11.服飾
擊劍服:fencing clothes;suit 擊劍上衣:fencing jacket 金屬衣〔背心〕:metallic vest [plastron] 擊劍褲:fencing breeches 面罩:face guard; (wire-mesh)mask 護頸:neck flap [guard]; bib; bavette 護臂:bracer 護胸:chest protector; plastron 護腕:cuff 護腿:cuissard 防護手套:gauntlet
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